Containers, Docker, Hyper-V, Nano Server, Powershell, Server 2016

More about Containers …

I have found this article in GitHub site really nice and easy to understand. I think more and more people need to understand the terminology first and it is crucial. Containers will be compared to Virtual Machines but there are lots of differences…

  • Containers are about Software!
  • Traditionally we use the following process to run software:
    • Find the software, usually a standalone web site.
    • Download the software, usually a zip file or some sort of installer.
    • Then we install the software, often extracting a zip file or running an installer.
    • Then we run the installed software.
  • You can learn alot about containers by relating them to the process above. Here’s what it looks like to run software with containers:
    • Find the software, on Docker Hub.
    • Download the software with docker pull, comes down as an image which is much like a zip file or msi installer. An image is an application packaging format.
    • Instead of installing the software, we create a container. So, a container–a stopped container–is like installed software. Docker unpacks the image onto the computer, creating a container. Note: if you just want to create a container, you can use docker create.
    • Then we run the container which is exactly like running an exe. It’s the same thing under the covers!!!
    • We often use docker run to orchestrate all of these steps with one command, how convenient!
  • docker exec can be thought of as running another copy of our installed software, like when we launch an executable twice. For example, two copies of Microsoft Word. Or with MongoDB, we might run two mongo clients. After a container is created and running, we can use docker exec to run multiple applications, or multiple copies of the same app, inside the container.


Containers, Docker, Hyper-V, Nano Server, Server 2016

Windows Containers on Windows Server 2016

I am running these on Windows 10 Pro and I have got Hyper-V feature enabled. Created a few VMs on this hyper-v host.

Prerequisites: One computer system (physical or virtual) running Windows Server 2016.

Critical updates are needed in order for the Windows Container feature to function. Please install all updates before working through this tutorial.

To install Docker we’ll use the OneGet provider PowerShell module which works with providers to perform the installation, in this case the MicrosoftDockerProvider. The provider enables the containers feature on your machine. You also install Docker which requires a reboot. Docker is required in order to work with Windows containers. It consists of the Docker Engine and the Docker client.+

Fist I have enabled Containers Feature on my server going in to Add Roles and Features



Then run a PowerShell command prompt as an administrator;

First, install the Docker-Microsoft PackageManagement Provider from the PowerShell Gallery.

Install-Module -Name DockerMsftProvider -Repository PSGallery -Force


Secondly you use the PackageManagement PowerShell module to install the latest version of Docker.

Install-Package -Name docker -ProviderName DockerMsftProvider


This indicates we need KB3176936 to be installed on my server. I will use Windows Updates to bring my server up-to-date.



Looks like we are good to carry on, I will run the same command one more time to see if it is going to run…


All good so far. And run Restart-Computer -Force to restart to complete configurations.

Just to check the installed version….


I downloaded a pre-created .NET sample image from the Docker Hub registry and deploy a simple container running a .Net Hello World application.

Use docker run to deploy the .Net container. This will also download the container image which may take a few minutes.

docker run microsoft/dotnet-samples:dotnetapp-nanoserver


I had to start Docker service after my reboot otherwise I get the error in the image..

Start-Service Docker

Once all the downloads completed…..


There you have it.

General, Licensing

OFFICE 365 Licensing – Enterprise

Office 365 Enterprise E1

This entry level version of Microsoft’s software is the least expensive of the plans, at £6 per month per user. Your users must have an Internet connection to use E1 because this version does not include installed versions of the applications.

If your organization has people working out in the field, relying on tablet computers or smartphones to do their work, E1 is not for you because it does not install applications on mobile devices either. You do get online versions of familiar Office products, such as Excel, PowerPoint and Word. Each user gets 1 TB for storing and sharing data, as well as 50 GB per inbox with Microsoft’s business-class email, calendar and contacts.

Office 365 Enterprise E3

Microsoft’s midrange plan costs £17.60 per month per user. The main benefit here over the less expensive E1 and ProPlus plans is that this includes fully installed Office applications: Excel, Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Publisher, OneNote as well as Skype for Business.

You can install these applications on as many as five PCs or Macs and on up to 5 mobile phones and 5 tablets per user. Being a cloud services solution, there are also online versions of Excel, Word and PowerPoint and other Office apps, so your users will not have to rely on devices with software already installed.

Office 365 Enterprise E5

For maximum flexibility and horsepower, you’ll want to go with the E5 plan. It costs £30.80 per month per user. In addition to a full installation of all Office applications on users’ devices, you gain access to advanced security to protect your organization’s data against heretofore unseen malware and viruses, with additional protection against zero-day exploits.

E5 is the only plan that includes analytics tools. It is also the sole version that enables PSTN conferencing to facilitate Skype for Business meetings by letting participants connect over mobile phones or landlines. For companies that require more communications options, E5 also includes cloud PBX services to give you cloud-based call management (placing, receiving and transferring calls on multiple devices).

Office 365 ProPlus

The ProPlus version of Office 365 requires a monthly fee of £11.50, making it a suitable compromise between the E1 and E3 plans in terms of price. The main distinction here is that ProPlus has enterprise features but no email.

If your organization already has a preferred client for email or relies on webmail, this may be the best plan for you from a budget perspective. Likewise, if you already have an employee portal or dashboard in place, you won’t miss the fact that Office 365 ProPlus lacks an intranet site, corporate social networking or a corporate video portal. Companies that need advanced security or analytics tools should skip ProPlus and go with the E5 solution.


General, Licensing

What is Microsoft 365?

Microsoft 365 is a complete, intelligent solution for our commercial customers to empower everyone to be creative and work together, securely. Microsoft 365 Enterprise is the offering for our enterprise customers and Microsoft 365 Business is the offering for small and medium-sized businesses.

Microsoft 365 Enterprise includes Office 365 Enterprise, Windows 10 Enterprise, Enterprise Mobility + Security. Microsoft 365 Business is a new solution designed for small and medium-sized businesses, available in public preview, bringing together the best-in-class productivity and collaboration capabilities of Office 365 with device management and security solutions to safeguard business data.

Microsoft 365 E3 Microsoft 365 E5
  • Office 365 E3
  • Windows 10 Enterprise E3
  • Enterprise Mobility + Security E3
  • Office 365 E5
  • Windows 10 Enterprise E5
  • Enterprise Mobility + Security E5


Microsoft 365 Education includes Office 365, Windows 10, Enterprise Mobility + Security, and Minecraft: Education Edition to empower educators to unlock creativity, promote teamwork, and provide a simple and safe experience in a single, affordable solution built for education.

Microsoft 365 Education A3 Microsoft 365 Education A5
  • Windows 10 Education A3
  • Microsoft Office 365 A3
  • Enterprise Mobility + Security E3
  • Minecraft: Education Edition
  • Windows 10 Education A5
  • Microsoft Office 365 A5
  • Enterprise Mobility + Security E5
  • Minecraft: Education Edition
Hyper-V, Nano Server, Server 2016

Roles and Features for a Nano Server

For Windows Server 2016, Nano Server is distributed on the physical media, where you will find a NanoServer folder; this contains a .wim image and a subfolder called Packages. It is these package files that you use to add server roles and features to the VHD image, which you then boot to.


You can also find and install these packages with the the NanoServerPackage provider of PackageManagement (OneGet) PowerShell module.


This table shows the roles and features that are available in this release of Nano Server, along with the Windows PowerShell options that will install the packages for them. Some packages are installed directly with their own Windows PowerShell switches (such as -Compute); others you install by passing package names to the -Package parameter, which you can combine in a comma-separated list. You can dynamically list available packages using the Get-NanoServerPackage cmdlet.

Role or feature Option
Hyper-V role (including NetQoS) -Compute
Failover Clustering and other components, detailed after this table -Clustering
Basic drivers for a variety of network adapters and storage controllers. This is the same set of drivers included in a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2016. -OEMDrivers
File Server role and other storage components, detailed after this table -Storage
Windows Defender, including a default signature file -Defender
Reverse forwarders for application compatibility, for example common application frameworks such as Ruby, Node.js, etc. Now included by default
DNS Server role -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-DNS-Package
PowerShell Desired State Configuration (DSC) -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-DSC-Package
Internet Information Server (IIS) -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-IIS-Package
Host support for Windows Containers -Containers
System Center Virtual Machine Manager agent -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-SCVMM-Package
-Package Microsoft-NanoServer-SCVMM-Compute-Package
Note: Use the SCVMM Compute package only if you are monitoring Hyper-V. For hyper-converged deployments in VMM, you should also specify the -Storage parameter.
System Center Operations Manager agent Installed separately.
Data Center Bridging (including DCBQoS) -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-DCB-Package
Deploying on a virtual machine -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-Guest-Package
Deploying on a physical machine – Package Microsoft-NanoServer-Host-Package
BitLocker, trusted platform module (TPM), volume encryption, platform identification, cryptography providers, and other functionality related to secure startup -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-SecureStartup-Package
Hyper-V support for Shielded VMs -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-ShieldedVM-Package
Note: This package is only available for the Datacenter edition of Nano Server.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agent -Package
Note: Not included with Windows Server 2016 installation media. Available online only.
IPHelper service which provides tunnel connectivity using IPv6 transition technologies (6to4, ISATAP, Port Proxy, and Teredo), and IP-HTTPS -Package
Note: Not included with Windows Server 2016 installation media. Available online only.

Failover Clustering items installed by the -Clustering parameter

  • Failover Clustering role
  • VM Failover Clustering
  • Storage Spaces Direct (S2D)
  • Storage Quality of Service
  • Volume Replication Clustering
  • SMB Witness Service

File and storage items installed by the -Storage parameter

  • File Server role
  • Data Deduplication
  • Multipath I/O, including a driver for Microsoft Device-Specific Module (MSDSM)
  • ReFS (v1 and v2)
  • iSCSI Initiator (but not iSCSI Target)
  • Storage Replica
  • Storage Management Service with SMI-S support
  • SMB Witness Service
  • Dynamic Volumes
  • Basic Windows storage providers (for Windows Storage Management)


Failover Clustering

Import-PackageProvider NanoServerPackage

find-NanoServerPackage -Name *

install-NanoServerPackage -name Microsoft-NanoServer-FailoverCluster-Package -culture en-us


Import-PackageProvider NanoServerPackage

find-NanoServerPackage -Name *

install-NanoServerPackage -name Microsoft-NanoServer-DNS-Package -culture en-us

Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName DNS-Server-Full-Role


Hyper-V –

Import-PackageProvider NanoServerPackage

find-NanoServerPackage -Name *

install-NanoServerPackage -name Microsoft-NanoServer-Compute-Package -culture en-us


Hyper-V, Nano Server, Server 2016

How to deploy a Nano Server 2016

Nano Server is a remotely administered server operating system optimized for private clouds and datacenters. It is similar to Windows Server in Server Core mode, but significantly smaller, has no local logon capability, and only supports 64-bit applications, tools, and agents. It takes up far less disk space, sets up significantly faster, and requires far fewer updates and restarts than Windows Server. When it does restart, it restarts much faster. The Nano Server installation option is available for Standard and Datacenter editions of Windows Server 2016.

So let’s start, first of all, I have mounted my Server 2016 ISO file on to my desktop and copied the NanoServer folder on to my local drive.

NANO file

We have got a few things here that we will need to create our VHDX file for our VM.


Start Windows PowerShell as an administrator, change directory to the folder where you have placed the NanoServer folder and then import the module with;

Import-Module .\NanoServerImageGenerator -Verbose


As you see from the image you need to change your execution policy to run this command otherwise you will get error message like the one in the image.

Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

This will allow us to run all the commandlets for nano server.

Next is to create our VHDX file.

New-NanoServerImage -Edition Standard -DeploymentType Guest -MediaPath <path to root of media> -BasePath .\Base -TargetPath .\NanoServerVM\NanoServerVM.vhd -ComputerName <computer name>





So, this creates a VHDX from an ISO mounted as I:\. When creating the VHDX it will use a folder called Base in the same directory where you ran New-NanoServerImage; it will place the VHDX (called NanoServer1.vhdx) in a folder called NanoServer in the folder from where the command is run. The computer name will be NanoServer1. The resulting VHDX will contain the Standard edition of Windows Server 2016 and will be suitable for Hyper-V virtual machine deployment. If you want a Generation 1 virtual machine, create a VHD image by specifying a .vhd extension for -TargetPath. For a Generation 2 virtual machine, create a VHDX image by specifying a .vhdx extension for -TargetPath. You can also directly generate a WIM file by specifying a .wim extension for -TargetPath.

What we see within our folder;


Our final step is to use our Hyper-V Server to create a VM using thi VHDX file.

From hyper-v manager > create a virtual machine > starts with a wizard > Give a name and use the option “Use an existing virtual hard disk and locate the VHDX file we have just created. And finish the wizard.


You will see the first screen


Use the credentials you use to create this VM, you will be asked to change this password. Log on;

second screen

This is all you get; Configure the Networking and firewall rules for SMB and ICMP traffic ….

You can only manage this server remotely but you need to create a trust. Go to a member server and open up a PowerShell command;

Set-item wsman:\localhost\client\trustedhosts -value [IP address of your nano server]



Then you can run

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName NanoServer1

Hyper-V, Server 2012 / R2, Server 2016, Virtualization

Hyper-V Integration Services

Hyper-V Integration Services allow a virtual machine to communicate with the Hyper-V host. Many of these services are conveniences, such as guest file copy, while others are important to the virtual machine’s ability to function correctly, such as time synchronization. This set of services are sometimes referred to as integration components,


The Integration Services pane lists all integration services available on the Hyper-V host, and whether they’re turned on in the virtual machine. To get the version information for a guest operating system, log on to the guest operating system, open a command prompt, and run this command:

REG QUERY “HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Virtual Machine\Auto” /v IntegrationServicesVersion


Integration services

Name Windows Service Name Linux Daemon Name Description Impact on VM when disabled
Hyper-V Heartbeat Service vmicheartbeat hv_utils Reports that the virtual machine is running correctly. Varies
Hyper-V Guest Shutdown Service vmicshutdown hv_utils Allows the host to trigger virtual machines shutdown. High
Hyper-V Time Synchronization Service vmictimesync hv_utils Synchronizes the virtual machine’s clock with the host computer’s clock. High
Hyper-V Data Exchange Service (KVP) vmickvpexchange hv_kvp_daemon Provides a way to exchange basic metadata b etween the virtual machine and the host. Medium
Hyper-V Volume Shadow Copy Requestor vmicvss hv_vss_daemon Allows Volume Shadow Copy Service to back up the virtual machine with out shutting it down. Varies
Hyper-V Guest Service Interface vmicguestinterface hv_fcopy_daemon Provides an interface for the Hyper-V host to copy files to or from the virtual machine. Low
Hyper-V PowerShell Direct Service vmicvmsession not available Provides a way to manage virtual machine with PowerShell without a network connection. Low

Use Windows PowerShell to turn a integration service on or off

To do this in PowerShell, use Enable-VMIntegrationService and Disable-VMIntegrationService.

Get-VMIntegrationService -VMName “TestVM”

VMName Name Enabled PrimaryStatusDescription SecondaryStatusDescription
—— —- ——- ———————— ————————–
TestVM Guest Service Interface      False OK
TestVM Heartbeat                              True OK                                 OK
TestVM Key-Value Pair Exchange   True OK
TestVM Shutdown                              True OK
TestVM Time Synchronization        True OK
TestVM VSS                                          True OK

                                    Services Overview

Hyper-V Guest Shutdown Service

Windows Service Name: vmicshutdown
Linux Daemon Name: hv_utils
Description: Allows the Hyper-V host to request that the virtual machine shutdown. The host can always force the virtual machine to turn off, but that is like flipping the power switch as opposed to selecting shutdown.
Added In: Windows Server 2012, Windows 8
Impact: High Impact When disabled, the host can’t trigger a friendly shutdown inside the virtual machine. All shutdowns will be a hard power-off wich could cause data loss or data corruption.

Hyper-V Time Synchronization Service

Windows Service Name: vmictimesync
Linux Daemon Name: hv_utils
Description: Synchronizes the virtual machine’s system clock with the system clock of the physical computer.
Added In: Windows Server 2012, Windows 8
Impact: High Impact When disabled, the virtual machine’s clock will drift erratically.

Hyper-V Data Exchange Service (KVP)

Windows Service Name: vmickvpexchange
Linux Daemon Name: hv_kvp_daemon
Description: Provides a mechanism to exchange basic metadata between the virtual machine and the host.
Added In: Windows Server 2012, Windows 8
Impact: When disabled, virtual machines running Windows 8 or Windows Server 2012 or earlier will not receive updates to Hyper-V integration services. Disabling data exchange may also impact some kinds of monitoring and host-side diagnostics.+

The data exchange service (sometimes called KVP) shares small amounts of machine information between virtual machine and the Hyper-V host using key-value pairs (KVP) through the Windows registry. The same mechanism can also be used to share customized data between the virtual machine and the host.

Hyper-V Volume Shadow Copy Requestor

Windows Service Name: vmicvss
Linux Daemon Name: hv_vss_daemon
Description: Allows Volume Shadow Copy Service to back up applications and data on the virtual machine.
Added In: Windows Server 2012, Windows 8
Impact: When disabled, the virtual machine can not be backed up while running (using VSS).+

The Volume Shadow Copy Requestor integration service is required for Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS). The Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) captures and copies images for backup on running systems, particularly servers, without unduly degrading the performance and stability of the services they provide. This integration service makes that possible by coordinating the virtual machine’s workloads with the host’s backup process.

Hyper-V Guest Service Interface

Windows Service Name: vmicguestinterface
Linux Daemon Name: hv_fcopy_daemon
Description: Provides an interface for the Hyper-V host to bidirectionally copy files to or from the virtual machine.
Added In: Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8.1
Impact: When disabled, the host can not copy files to and from the guest using Copy-VMFile.

Hyper-V PowerShell Direct Service

Windows Service Name: vmicvmsession
Linux Daemon Name: n/a
Description: Provides a mechanism to manage virtual machine with PowerShell via VM session without a virtual network.
Added In: Windows Server TP3, Windows 10
Impact: Disabling this service prevents the host from being able to connect to the virtual machine with PowerShell Direct.

The service name was originally was Hyper-V VM Session Service.
PowerShell Direct is under active development and only available on Windows 10/Windows Server Technical Preview 3 or later hosts/guests.

PowerShell Direct allows PowerShell management inside a virtual machine from the Hyper-V host regardless of any network configuration or remote management settings on either the Hyper-V host or the virtual machine. This makes it easier for Hyper-V Administrators to automate and script management and configuration tasks.